Insecticides of plant origin: Rotenone: Derived from roots of Lonchocarpus/ Derris elyptica. Pyrethrum: Derived from flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium Azadirachtins: Derived from seeds & leaves of Neem, Azadirachta indica. Nicotine: … Read More
National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB): This focuses on Field Artificial Insemination (Al) Net work; conservation of indigenous breed and establishment of breeders’ associations and societies to encourage conservation and … Read More
National Dairy Plan was introduced in 2012 to develop the dairy sector of the country. Its projects were largely funded by the International Development Association of the World Bank. The … Read More
Pest categories 1)key pests: These pest categories are the most severe and damaging pests. GEP(General Equilibrium Position) lies well above the DB (Damage Boundary) and EIL(Economic Injury Level). Ex- Cotton … Read More
General Equilibrium Position: It is the average population density of an insect population over a long period of time, unaffected by the temporary, interventions of pest control.
Economic Injury level: The lowest population density of the pest that will cause economic damage. It is also called the Damage Threshold Level. Economic Threshold Level Damage boundary.
Economic threshold level: The pest density at which control measures should be applied to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic damage level is called the Economic Threshold … Read More
Damage boundary Damage boundary is the lowest level of loss that can be measured. This level occurs before the economic loss.
virus and bacteria-infested larvae symptoms Virus infested Bacteria infested Infested larvae stop feeding Larvae reduce feeding The larvae turn into pinkish-white in the ventral side because of accumulation of polyhedral … Read More
virus for pest control: 1)Baculovirus particularly Nuclear Poly Hedrosis Viruses(NPV) of Heliothis and Spodoptera litura– In pulses, NPVs of Heliothis and Spodoptera litura has a promising result. 2)NPV of Helicoverpa armiger (Ha NPV)- Helicoverpa armigera on tomato … Read More
Fungus used for pest control: Metarhizium anisopliae Paecilomyces lilacinus Applied at the breeding sites of the rhinoceros beetles after premonsoon rain, infects pyrilla, white grubs and aphids.
Field Capacity When macropores drain their water and are filled by air but micropores or capillary pores are still filled with water than soil is called at field capacity. The … Read More
Permanent wilting percentage When plants are in a permanently wilted condition and will die if the water is not added. the percentage amount of water held by soil at this … Read More
Bacterial pest control is the use of bacteria to control pests. Examples are: Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.bacteria)– It is effective against the caterpillars of many Lepidoptera. Products of B.t. are marketed as … Read More
Pests microbial control of pests by the use of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsia, and nematode or their by-products. Examples are: Bacteria- Bacillus thuringiensis. Fungi-Metarhizium anisopliae. Virus- NPV
Sprayers are most commonly used for pesticides application. Here is a chart of the type of sprayers and their size in micron. Sprayer Size in micron Coarse spray 400 or … Read More
A parasitoid is a special kind of parasite which is often about the same size as its host, kills its host and requires only one host for developing into a … Read More
Cauliflower disorders: Disorder Character Causes Blindness Plants having no terminal buds and fail to form a curd. Damage in an early stage by insects, low temp, and frost Buttoning Development … Read More
Cauliflower varieties: In cauliflower three-season varieties are available: Early varieties: These are smaller in size and have curd of yellowish ting. Examples are- Pusa early synthetic, Early kunwari, pusa deepali, … Read More
Cauliflower blanching is covering the curd(head) with the help of leaves. Outer leaves are covered over the curd and tied. Blanching is done to protect the curd from direct exposer … Read More