Problems of Agriculture in India

Major problems of Indian Agriculture:

  1. Dependency on Monsoon-Indian agriculture mainly dependent on Monsoon which is Irregular rainfall. Due to low rainfall water level goes down in the well and in Rivers scarcity of water. Major area in the country directly irrigated through rainfall. In case of below average rain or delay in the rainfall badly affect agriculture. Also due to high price of Diesel, it leads to high input cost.
  2. Improper Irrigation system– canal irrigation is developed at fewer places and some of the places tubewell irrigation. But major part of the country does not have the proper irrigation system.
  3. Non availability of HYV seeds-High Yield Variety seed not available in good quality and at affordable price to the farmers, it leads to low production.
  4. High Cost of fertilizer-Even after govt subsidy cost of fertilizer is very high. Due to this agriculture input cost increases. Sometimes in spite of high cost fertilizer not available in market. Lesser knowledge for use of which type (N,  K) fertilizer is another issue. Generally farmers use the cheap fertilizer in bulk quantity.
  5. Insecticide and pesticide-High cost and due to lack of knowledge (type, Quantity and quality) of use of Insecticide and pesticide cause problem in agriculture.
  6. Poor Financial condition of farmers– Due to lack of fund to the farmers, they not able to purchase fertilizer, seeds and Machinery for agriculture.
  7. Low profit ratio-Low profit on sale of agriculture produce with respect to the high input cost. Farmers not able to sell their product at MSP set by government due to various reasons and issues. Hence earn less profit.
  8. Draught & Flood-Frequent draught and flood is the serious problem for agriculture. In draught scarcity of water damage crops and during flood excess water damage crops.
  9. Low Selling price –Low selling price of agriculture produce due to the intermediaries leads to low profit. Farmers could not get the MSP ( Minimum Support Price) set by the government. To sell the product at the MST there is lots of criteria like Moisture content %,quality of grains etc.. which is not known to the farmers and when they bring the grains to sell problems comes and ultimately they have to sell it to mid persons. Also handling of grains for selling is another issues.
  10. Storage Issues-In the absence of proper storage with farmers, they have to sell the major part of their crops immediate after harvesting at low price. If proper storage technique and facility available with farmers they would get more price after selling it when price rises.
  11. Limited crops production-Limited types of crops mainly paddy , wheat, oils seeds, pulses , Sugarcane etc are being planted in India. Option may be considered for plantation of new variety crops of inter region.
  12. Limited crops harvesting –Mainly one or two season crops is being harvested in India. There is option for harvesting of zaid crops which will increase farmers profit. But there is problem in the plantation of ZAID crops like which crops to plant and irrigation system.
  13. Lower Literacy ratio-Due to lack of knowledge it leads to problem in implementation of new techniques.
  14. Scarcity of High technical machines– Technology has been developed for machinery in agriculture to reduce the manpower use and get more production with low input. There is limited reach to the required farmers, and they are costly to get to marginal farmers. Machines like Harvesters, Seed drill, Thressor, tractors.  
  15. Soil Health issues– Due to high use of fertilizer and pesticide quality of soil health decreases and major farmers does not have the soil health card to identify which fertilizer and crops will be suitable for their field.  
  16. Food processing facility- lack of food processing techniques and facility leads to low profit to the farmers in case of high crops yield during season  specially vegetable and fruit. Some perishable items may be processed but due to lack of facility , it get wasted.
  17. Low production per acre- Per acre production of crops is low in India in comparison with other developed countries. Even production in less in other parts of the country in comparison with Punjab.