ALLUVIAL SOILS: Alluvial soils are a mixture of clay and sand and are deposited by transportation in streams and rivers. these soils cover more than 35% land of India occupying about 143 mha. Found in delta regions of northern India, highest area in UP followed by Haryana Delhi Rajasthan and western Gujrat. These soils are rich in phosphoric acid and humus. they are poor in nitrogen and potash. Newly formed alluvial soil is called Khaddar which is more sandy, and older one is called Bhangar is more clayey in nature.
suitable crops: maize, cotton, rice, wheat,bajra, tobacco, legumes, oilseeds, etc.
BLACK SOILS: Also called cotton soils or regur, black soils are high in clay content. Formed due to weathering of lava rocks. Found mainly in Maharashtra and MP, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, these soils are rich in iron, lime, magnesium, and aluminum. poor in Phosphorus, nitrogen, and humus.
suitable crops: excellent for cotton. other crops rice sugarcane, sunflower, citrus fruits, oilseeds, groundnut etc.
RED and YELLOW SOILS: These soils are found in parts of Chhatisgarh, Deccan plateau, Odisha, western ghats. These are red in color due to the presence of iron oxide. these soils are sandy and rich in potash, iron, and Mn. poor in nitrogen, magnesium, lime, and humus.red soils are called early soils because of frequent rains of southwest monsoon sowing can be done earlier as compared to other soils.Red soil have high P fixation capacity.
suitable crops: rice, sugarcane, groundnut, finger millet, potato.
LATERITE SOILS: mainly found in hills of Kerala, Karnataka, Orissa, Assam. the coastal area of Goa and Maharashtra. These are rich in iron. Maximum leaching takes place in these soils.
Suitable crops: tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, cashew, rice, etc.