Training is judicious removal of plant parts to develop a proper shape of plant capable of bearing heavy crop load.
- Centre leader system(not suitable for high altitude and hot arid places where wind velocity is high)
- Open center system (not suitable for frost prone area)
- Modified leadership system(this is most acceptable for commercial fruit production.
Training system for grape vines
- Head system: suitable for less vigorous cultivar and it is very suitable and inexpensive.
- Kniffin: also know as 4-cane system.
- Telephone system: also known as 6-cane system and it is suitable for vigorous cultivar.